Agriculture in Iran-General informations
The largest country in the Middle East covering a total area of about 1.75 million km2., the Islamic Republic of Iran has a long history of agriculture The country is bordered by Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz and the Persian Gulf to the south, and Iraq and Turkey to the west.
About 52 percent of the country consists of mountains and deserts and some 16 percent of the country has an elevation of more than 2 000 m above sea level. The largest mountain massif is that of the Zagros . The Central Mountain Plateau covers over 50 percent of the country. It is partly covered by a remarkable salt swamp (kavir) and partly by areas of loose sand or stones.
Water and soil
Iran faces a number of challenges to agricultural production, with the growing problems of water scarcity, soil salinity.
With an average rainfall of 240mm per year, Iran is a dryland area. Approximately 90 per cent of its territory is classed as arid and semi-arid, of which about half is characterized by low- or medium-quality rangeland, wasteland and mountains.
Increasing population and consumption have raised concerns on agriculture and food security. The overarching effects of climate change pose further threats to the sustainability of agricultural systems to be adapted for a climate impact mitigation.read more
The Islamic Republic of Iran is the largest fishery producer in the region, with a 2 440 km coastline along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, and a 740 km coastline in the north along the southern part of the Caspian Sea. In addition, there are a number of freshwater resources. With fisheries extending over two major sea areas, the fisheries of Iran are diverse and include major demersal and pelagic resources in the marine areas and major clupeid fisheries and a valuable (but falling off) sturgeon fishery in the Caspian Sea. read more
More than one-tenth of Iran is forested. Mild climate, plentiful rainfall, and a long growing season have combined to make a dense forest of high-quality timber in the Caspian region. Moreover, more than 2,000 plant species are grown in Iran. There is an extensive growth of temperate-zone hardwoods, including beech, oak, Siberian elm, maple, walnut, ash, ironwood, basswood, alder, and fig. About half of the Caspian forests consist of these trees; the remainder is low-grade scrub. The Zagros Mountains in the west and areas in Khorasan and Fars provinces abound in oak, walnut, and maple trees. Shiraz is renowned for its cypresses.
Iranian forests can be classified ecologically as comprising of these biomes:
1.Caspian broadleaf deciduous forests
Gilan Forest Iran
Half of Iran’s landscape is covered by mountain ranges. The Elburz and Zagros are the two most significant of these mountain ranges. The mountain ranges provide enormous benefits to Iran. The mountains form natural barriers to the central region in Iran. Nomadic communities graze on the mountain slopes.
The icy peak of Damavand, Iran’s tallest mountain.
With an Elevation of 5,609.2 m (18,403 the Mount Damāvand is the 12th most prominent peak in the world, and the third most prominent in Asia after Mount Everest and Puncak Jaya. It is the highest volcanic mountain in Asia, and part of the Volcanic Seven Summits mountaineering challenge.